Interpersonal Aspects of Project Execution

Project team is the engine that drives implementation of project.

Legitimate Power: The ability to gain support because project personnel perceive the project manager as being officially empowered to issue orders.
Reward Power: The ability to gain support because project personnel perceive the project manager as capable of directly or indirectly dispensing valued organizational rewards (i.e. salary, promotion, bonus, future work assignments
Penalty Power: The ability to gain support because the project personnel perceive the project manager as capable of directly or indirectly dispensing penalties that they wish to avoid. Penalty power usually derives from the same source as reward power, with one being a necessary condition for the other
Expert Power: The ability to gain support because personnel perceive the project manager as possessing special knowledge or expertise. (that functional personnel perceive as consider as important)

Referent power: The ability to gain support because project personnel feel personally attracted to the project manager or project

  1. Empower your project team.
    Empowerment takes place when power is given to employees who then experience a sense of ownership and control over their job duties.
    Empowerment and delegation are often confused. While similar, delegation is typically done on a case-by-case basis while empowerment is performed on a larger scale.
    When you are empowered, you know that you are responsible for your tasks. An organization empowers people when it enables them to take on more responsibility and to make use of what they know and learn.
    In a project management setting, success comes from empowering teams.
  2. Establish roles and responsibilities for team operation.
    All teams need rules for harmonious operation.
    Team members suffer from confusion and frustration when roles and responsibilities are not clear.
  3. Develop effective communication.
    The objective of communication is to create a common understanding. The goal of common understanding, also known as a common frame of reference, is for communicators to see things the same way. To reach a state of common understanding, you need to clarify, paraphrase, and ask questions.

a. Information clarity.
The starting point for ideal communication is to make sure that you, as a sender, create a clear message or that you say what you mean.

b. Information flow.
Successful communication is greatly dependent upon information flow, in terms of direction, nature, and formality.

· Communication direction.
Communication patterns go in a variety of directions. The most common direction for communication is horizontal (with peers) and one-level vertical (with supervisors and subordinates).

· Communication nature.
The nature of information flow refers to communication type, including providing verbal directions, making speeches and having informal conversations.

· Communication formality.
Communication formality pertains to the degree that communications follow an organization’s hierarchical structure.

c. Listening.
Perhaps the most deficient component of communication is difficulty in listening.
True communication must be a dialogue. It cannot be a monologue where only a sender speaks.

d. Nonverbal communication.
Approximately two-thirds of communication is nonverbal. To determine what a sender is really saying, you need to do more than listen to his or her words.

  1. Facilitate effective problem solving and decision making
    From the very first moments you implement your project plan, you have opportunities to identify problems, make decisions, and implement solutions.
  1. Know how and when to use influence and persuasion.
    Persuasion is the process of convincing another person to change his or her beliefs and/or behavior through moral or logical argument (rather than force).
    Influence differs from power in a few key areas. Power has a wider scope while influence is situation-specific and takes place on a face-to-face basis. Also, power is a long-term behavior while influence takes place case-by-case.
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